Closing Event of SNUSP II » SNUSP I » State Sanitation Strategy  · 

State Sanitation Strategy


The urban growth in India is faster than the average for the country and far higher for urban areas over rural. The proportion of population residing in urban areas has increased from 27.8 % in 2001 to 31.80 % in 2011 and likely to reach 50% by 2030. The number of towns has increased from 5,161 in 2001 to 7,935 in 2011. The rapid growth in urban areas has not been backed adequately with provisioning of basic sanitation infrastructure and thus leaving many Indian cities deficient in services as water supply, sewerage, storm water drainage, and solid waste management.

Sanitation is intrinsically linked to conditions and processes relating to public health and quality of environment, especially the systems that supply water and deals with human waste. The problem of sanitation gets further worsened in urban areas due to increasing congestion and density in cities resulting in poor environmental and health outcomes. As per 2011 Census, the households having latrine facility within premises is 81.4% which includes 72.6% households having water closets and 7.1% households having pit latrines and 1.70% households having other latrines. Out of 72.6% households, 32.70% households are having water closets with piped sewer system, 38.20% households are having water closets with pit latrines. The remaining 18.60% household are both sharing public latrines (6%) and defecating in open (12.60%)

To improve the sanitation situation in urban areas, in October 2008, the Government of India announced the “National Urban Sanitation Policy” (NUSP). The NUSP laid down the framework for addressing the challenges of city sanitation. The policy emphasizes the need for spreading awareness about sanitation through an integrated city-wide approach, assigning institutional responsibilities and due regard for demand and supply considerations, with special focus on the women and urban poor.

All the states were requested to act with par with the NUSP to develop respective State Sanitation Strategies (SSS) and the cities for the preparation of City Sanitation Plans (CSPs) given that the sanitation is a State subject as per the Constitutional provisions.


The overall goal of the policy is to transform urban India into community driven, totally sanitized, healthy, and liveable cities and towns.


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